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Configuring a NTP Time Server using Windows XP

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Microsoft Windows XP has a time synchronisation utility built into the operating system called Windows Time (w32time.exe) which can be configured to operate as a network time server. It can be configured to both synchronise a network using the internal clock or an external time source.

NTP (Network Time Protocol) is a protocol already installed on Windows XP and Windows Time uses it to keep machines synchronised to the single time source. There are several timing sources available on the Internet but Microsoft and others strongly recommend that you configure a time server with a hardware source rather than from the Internet where there is no authentication.

Specialist NTP time servers are available that can receive a reliable time source via the GPS signal or specialist radio transmissions that get their time from atomic clocks.

If you wish to configure Windows XP to operate as a time server then first thing is to locate the Windows Time subkey. To do this:
Run Regedit (Click start/run/then type REGEDIT/and click enter.

Note: editing your system registry can cause problems with your system. It is advisable to back up your system before editing the registry.

Now locate the following subkey: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\parameters\
Right click the right-hand side and click Modify. In the Edit Value box, under Value Data, type NTP and then click OK.
Now go to the Config folder and right-click AnnounceFlags, Modify and in the Edit DWORD Value box, under Value Data, type 5, and then click OK.

Locate this subkey:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\TimeProviders\NtpClient\

Right-click in the right-side window and Modify. Edit the DWORD value box and type the number of seconds you want for each poll under Value data, i.e.: 900 will equal 15 minutes. The poll field represents the polling interval between NTP poll packets.

To enable the NTP server locate the subkey: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\TimeProviders\NtpServer\
Right click enabled (in the right-hand window) then Modify. Edit the DWORD Value and type 1. Right-click NtpServer, then Modify and in the Edit DWORD Value under Value Data type Peers, then click OK.

Locate:  HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\config
In the right pane, right-click MaxPosPhaseCorrection, then Modify, in the Edit DWORD Value box, under Base, click Decimal, under Value Data, type a time in seconds such as 3600 (an hour) then click OK. This adjusts the connection settings.

Now go back and click:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\config

In the right pane, right-click MaxNegPhaseCorrection, then Modify.
In the Edit DWORD box under base, click Decimal, under value data type the time in seconds you want to poll such as 3600 (an hour).

Exit Registry then restart windows time service by clicking Start/Run then typing:
net stop w32time && net start w32time.
on each computer, other than the domain controller, type: W32tm/resync/rediscover.
The time server should be now up and running.

Configuring a Network Time Server on Windows

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All versions of Windows Server since 2000 have included a time synchronization facility, called Windows Time Service (w32time.exe), built into the operating system. This can be configured to operate as a network time server synchronizing all machines to a specific time source.

Windows Time Service uses a version of NTP (Network Time Protocol), normally a simplified version, of the Internet protocol which is designed to synchronise machines on a network, NTP is also the standard for which most computer networks across the global use to synchronise with.

Choosing the correct time source is vitally important. Most networks are synchronized to UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) source. UTC is a global standardized time based on atomic clocks which are the most accurate time sources.

UTC can be obtained over the Internet from such places as time.nist.gov (us Naval Observatory) or time.windows.com (Microsoft) but it must be noted that internet time sources can not be authenticated which can leave a system open to abuse and Microsoft and others advise using an external hardware source as a reference clock such as a specialized network time server.

Network time servers receive their time source from either a specialist radio transmission from national physics laboratories which broadcast UTC time taken from an atomic clock source or by the GPS network which also relays UTC as a consequence of needing it to pin point locations.

NTP can maintain time over the public Internet to within 1/100th of a second (10 milliseconds) and can perform even better over LANs.

To configure Windows Time Service to use an external time source simply follow these instructions.

Locate the registry subkey.

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\Parameters

Right click type then Modify the Value by inserting NTP in the Value Data box.

Right click ReliableTimeSource, then Modify the Edit DWORD Value box, by inserting 0 (zero).

Right-click NtpServer then Modify the Edit Value by typing the Domain Name System (DNS), (note each DNS must be unique).

Now locate the original subkey and right-click Period Modify the Edit DWORD Value box with the poll interval (how often a NTP server polls the time), under Value Data (recommended 24)

Run the following command line, Net stop w32time && net start w32time.

Now enable NTP by locating the subkey, HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\TimeProviders\NtpServer\

Right click Enabled and modify the Value data box by typing 1.

Right Click SpecialPollInterval in the right pain of the subkey HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\TimeProviders\NtpClient\SpecialPollInterval. Edit the DWORD value box the time you want for each poll (900 will poll every 15 minutes)

Locate HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\config

To configure the time correction settings right click MaxPosPhaseCorrection, then modify the DWORD Value box with a time in seconds such (select decimal under base first, 3600 = one hour)

Now do the same for MaxNegPhaseCorrection the restart windows time service by running (or alternatively use the command prompt facility) net stop w32time && net start w32time.

To synchronise each machine simply type W32tm/ -s in the command prompt and the time server should now be working correctly (note it may take several polls before the correct time is displayed).