The Global Positioning System much loved by drivers, pilots and sea-farers as a method of finding location offers much more than just satellite navigation information. The GPS system work by using atomic clocks that broadcast signals that are then triangulated by the computer in a satellite navigation system.
Because these atomic clocks are highly accurate and don’t drift by as much as a second even in a million years, they can be utilised as a method of synchronizing computer systems. GPS time, the time relayed by the GPS atomic clocks, is not strictly speaking the same as UTC (Coordinated Universal Time), the world’s global timescale, but as they are both based on International Atomic Time it can easily be converted. (GPS time is actual 17 seconds slower than UTC as there have been 17 leap seconds added to the global timescale since the GPS satellites where sent in to orbit).
A GPS clock is a device that receives the GPS signal and then translates it into the time. Most GPS clocks are dedicated time servers too as there is little point in receiving the exact time if you are to do nothing with it. GPS time servers use the protocol NTP (Network Time Protocol) which is one of the internet’s oldest protocols and designed to distribute timing information across a network.
A GPS clock, or GPS time server works by receiving a signal directly from the satellite. This unfortunately means the GPS antenna has to have a clear view of the sky to receive a signal. The time is then distributed from the time server to all devices on the network. The time on each device is regularly checked by NTP and if differs to the time from the GPS clock then it is adjusted.
Setting up a GPS clock for time synchronization is relatively easy. The time server (GPS clock) are often designed to fill a 1U space on a server rack. This is connected to the GPS antenna (usually on the roof) via a length of coax cable. The server is connected to the network and once it has locked on to the GPS system it can be set to begin synchronizing the network.