Atomic Clocks and the NTP Server Using Quantum Mechanics to Tell the Time

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Telling the time is not as straight forward as most people think. In fact the very question, ‘what is the time?’ is a question that even modern science can fail to answer. Time, according to Einstein, is relative; it’s passing changes for different observers, affected by such things as speed and gravity.

Even when we all live on the same planet and experience the passing of time in a similar way, telling the time can be increasingly difficult. Our original method of using the Earth’s rotation has since been discovered to be inaccurate as the Moon’s gravity causes some days to be longer than 24 hours and a few to be shorter. In fact when the early dinosaurs were roaming the Earth a day was only 22 hours long!

Whilst mechanical and electronic clocks have provided us with some degree accuracy, our modern technologies have required far more accurate time measurements. GPS, Internet trading and air traffic control are just three industries were split second timing is incredibly important.

So how do we keep track of time? Using the Earth’s rotation has proven unreliable whilst electrical oscillators (quartz clocks) and mechanical clocks are only accurate to a second or two per day. Unfortunately for many of our technologies a second inaccuracy can be far too long. In satellite navigation, light can travel 300,000 km in just over a second, making the average sat-nav unit useless if there was one second of inaccuracy.

The solution to finding an accurate method of measuring time has been to examine the very small – quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics is the study of the atom and its properties and how they interact. It was discovered that electrons, the tiny particles that orbit atoms changed the path that they orbit and released a precise amount of energy when they do so.

In the case of the caesium atom this occurs nearly nine billion times a second and this number never alters and so can be used as an ultra reliable method of keeping track of time. Caesium atoms are use din atomic clocks and in fact the second is now defined as just over 9 billion cycles of radiation of the caesium atom.

Atomic clocks
are the foundation for many of our technologies. The entire global economy relies on them with the time relayed by NTP time servers on computer networks or beamed down by GPS satellites; ensuring the entire world keeps the same, accurate and stable time.

An official global timescale, Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) has been developed thanks to atomic clocks allowing the whole world to run the same time to within a few thousandths of a second from each other.


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