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Useful NTP server related resources

Wednesday, February 25th, 2009

NTP homepage–  The home for the NTP Project who provides support and additional development resources for the Official Reference Implementation of NTP.

NTP Project support pages

THE NTP pool – list of public servers

NPL – The National Physical Laboratory in the UK who control the MSF radio signal.

The University of Delaware and David Mills’ information page, Professor Mills is the original inventor and developer of NTP

David Mills’ list of Public NTP Time Servers a list of public NTP servers

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) who operate the USA’s WWVB radio signal

Europe’s largest supplier of NTP server related products.

Galleon UK – NTP server products for the UK

NTP Time Server .com  – one of the largest time and frequency suppliers in the United States

NTP – Wikipedia article on NTP

NTP server checker – free tool to ensure time server accuracy

The NTP Server and Accurate Time

Monday, February 23rd, 2009

Accurate time on a network is essential for all businesses and institutions. Without an accurately synchronised system a computer network can be vulnerable to all sorts of problems, from malicious hackers and other security threats to fraud and data loss.
Network Time Protocol is the key to keeping accurate time it is a software algorithm that has been constantly developed for over two decades. NTP takes a single time source that is received by the NTP server and distributes it across a network ensuring all machines in that network are running to exact same time.

Whilst NTP can maintain synchronisation of a network to within a few milliseconds it is only as good as the time source it receives. A dedicated NTP server will use a time signal from an external source and so keep the network secure as the firewall will not have to be disturbed.

The two preferred methods for most users of NTP servers is the GPS network (Global Positioning System) or specialist time and frequency transmissions put out be several national physics labs such as the UK’s NPL.

These time signals are UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) which is the world’s civil timescale. An NTP server receiving time source from either a frequency transmission or the GPS network can realistically provide accuracy to within a few milliseconds of UTC

Network time servers are preferred as a synchronisation tool rather than the much simpler internet time servers because they are far more secure. Using the internet as a basis for time information would mean using a source outside the firewall which could allow malicious users to take advantage.

Network time servers on the other hand work inside the firewall, both of these type of signals are incredibly accurate and secure with each method providing millisecond accuracy to UTC. However, there are downsides to both systems. The radio signals broadcast by nation time and frequency laboratories are susceptible to interference and locality, while the GPS signal, although available literally everywhere on the globe can occasional be lost too (often due to bad weather interfering with the line-of-sight GPS signals.

For computer networks where high levels of accuracy are imperative, dual systems are often incorporated. These dual network time servers receive the time signal from both the GPS network and the radio transmissions and select an average for even more accuracy.  However, the real advantage of using a dual system is that if one signal fails, for what ever the reason, the network will not have to rely on the inaccurate system clocks as the other method of receiving UTC time should still be operational.

Does My Business Need Accurate Time Synchronisation Five question (part 2)

Saturday, February 21st, 2009

Keeping accurate time on a network with a NTP time server is highly important here is the second part of the article that explains why.

Legal protection – Whether it is a payment dispute with a supplier or customer or even a case of fraud committed against your company only an accurate method of synchronisation will be accepted as a legal defence. An NTP time server is legally auditable and can be used as evidence in a court of law.

Company Credibility:
Being victim to any of these potential hazards can have devastating effects on your own business but also that of your suppliers and customers. Once word gets out too it will soon become common knowledge amongst your competitors, customers and suppliers as news travels quickly in the business world. Keeping credibility is a good enough reason in itself to ensure a computer network is adequately synchronised.

If you have answered yes to any of the above questions then it is time your company invested in a dedicated NTP time server to accurately synchronise you computer network to.  Dedicated time servers use the protocol NTP (Network Time Protocol) as a method of distributing a single time source around the internet. UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) is the preferred time standard that most networks are synchronised to.

An NTP time server can receive a secure and accurate UTC time signal from the GPS network or from long wave radio transmissions broadcast by several national physics laboratories.

The Atomic Clock and the Network Time Server

Sunday, January 25th, 2009

The atomic clock is the culmination of mankind’s obsession of telling accurate time. Before the atomic clock and the nanosecond accuracy they, employ time scales were based on the celestial bodies.

However, thanks to the development of the atomic clock it has now been realised that even the Earth in its rotation is not as accurate a measure of time as the atomic clock as it loses or gains a fraction of a second each day.

Because of the need to have a timescale based somewhat on the Earth’s rotation (astronomy and farming being two reasons) a timescale that is kept by atomic clocks but adjusted for any slowing (or acceleration) in the Earth’s spin. This timescale is known as UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) as employed across the globe ensuring commerce and trade utilise the same time.

Computer networks use network time servers to synchronise to UTC time. Many people refer to these time server devices as atomic clocks but that is inaccurate. Atomic clocks are extremely expensive and highly sensitive pieces of equipment and are only usually to be found in universities or national physics laboratories.

Fortunately national physics laboratories like NIST (National Institute for Standards and Time – USA) and NPL (National Physical Laboratory – UK) broadcast the time signal from their atomic clocks. Alternatively the GPS network is another good source of accurate time as each GPS satellite has onboard its own atomic clock.

The network time server receives the time from an atomic clock and distributes it using a protocol such as NTP (Network Time Protocol) ensuring the computer network is synchronised to the same time.

Because network time servers are controlled by atomic clocks they can keep incredibly accurate time; not losing a second in hundreds if not thousands of years. This ensures that the computer network is both secure and unsusceptible to timing errors as all machines will have the exact same time.

A History of Atomic Clocks

Friday, January 23rd, 2009

The atomic clock is the culmination of mankind’s ability to keep time that has spanned several millennia. Humans have always been preoccupied with keeping track of time ever since early man noticed the regularity of the celestial bodies.

The sun, moon, stars and planets soon became the basis for out timescales with periods of time such as years, months, days and hours based solely on the regulation of the Earth’s rotation.

This worked for thousands of years as a reliable guide to how much time has past but over the last few centuries humans have strode to find even more reliable methods for keeping track of time. Whilst the Sun and celestial bodies were an affective way sundials didn’t work on cloudy days and as the days and night s altered during the year only noon (when the sun is at its highest) could be reasonably relied upon.

The first foray into an accurate timepiece that was not reliant on celestial bodies and was not a simple time (such as a candle taper or water clock) but actually told time over a prolonged period was the mechanical clock.

These first devices dating as far back as the twelfth century were crude mechanisms using a verge and foliot escapement (a gear and lever) to control the ticks of the clock. After a few centuries and a myriad of designs the mechanical clock took its next step forward with the pendulum. The pendulum gave clocks their first true accuracy as it controlled with more precision the ticks of the clock.

However, it wasn’t until the twentieth century when clocks entered the electronic age did they become truly accurate. The digital and electronic clock had its ticks controlled by using the oscillation of a quartz crystal (its changed energy state when a current is based through) which proved so accurate that rarely a second a week was lost.

The development of atomic clocks in the 1950’s used the oscillation of a single atom which generates over 9 billion ticks a second and can maintain precise time for millions of years without losing a second. These clocks now form the basis of our timescales with the entire world synchronised to them using NTP servers, ensuring wholly accurate and reliable time.

The NTP Server and Understanding Timescales

Monday, January 19th, 2009

There are several timescale used throughout the world. Most NTP servers and other network time servers use UTC as a base source however, there are others:

When we are asked the time it is very unlikely we would respond with ‘for which timescale’ yet there are several timescales used all over the globe and each is based on different methods of keeping track of the time.
GMT

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the local time on the Greenwich meridian based on the hypothetical mean sun. As the Earth’s orbit is elliptical and its axis is tilted, the actual position of the sun against the background of stars appears a little ahead or behind the expected position. The accumulated timing error varies through the year in a smoothly periodic manner by up to 14 minutes slow in February to 16 minutes fast in November. The use of a hypothetical mean sun removes this effect. Before 1925 astronomers and navigators measured GMT from noon to noon, starting the day 12 hours later than in civil usage which was also commonly referred to as GMT. To avoid confusion astronomers agreed in 1925 to change the reference point from noon to midnight, and a few years later adopted the term Universal Time (UT) for the “new” GMT. GMT remains the legal basis of the civil time for the UK.

UT

Universal Time (UT) is mean solar time on the Greenwich meridian with 0 h UT at mean midnight, and since 1925 has replaced GMT for scientific purposes. By the mid-1950s astronomers had much evidence of fluctuations in the Earth’s rotation and decided to divide UT into three versions. Time derived directly from observations is called UT0, applying corrections for movements of the Earth’s axis, or polar motion, gives UT1, and removing periodic seasonal variations generates UT2. The differences between UT0 and UT1 are of the order of thousandths of a second. Today, only UT1 is still widely used as it provides a measure of the rotational orientation of the Earth in space..


The world time standard
(UTC):

Although TAI provides a continuous, uniform, and precise time scale for scientific reference purposes, it is not convenient for everyday use because it is not in step with the Earth’s rate of rotation. A time scale that corresponds to the alternation of day and night is much more useful, and since 1972, all broadcast time services distribute time scales based on Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). UTC is an atomic time scale that is kept in agreement with Universal Time. Leap seconds are occasionally

Information courtesy of the National Physical Laboratory UK.

It could be the last Leap Second tonight as there are calls to have it scrapped

Wednesday, December 31st, 2008

At midnight on tonight an extra second will be added as recommended by the International Earth rotation and Reference systems Service (IERS). That means for the last minute of 2008 there will 61 seconds.

Leap Seconds have been added nearly every year since the inception of UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) in the 1970’s. The extra second is added to ensure UTC keeps in synch with GMT (Greenwich Meantime or sometimes called UT1). GMT is the traditional 24 hour clock system where a day is defined as the rotation of the Earth which takes 86,400 seconds for a complete revolution.

Unfortunately the Earth can often be a little tardy in its spin and if the extra seconds were no added at the end of the year to compensate eventually the two systems (UTC and GMT) would drift apart. In a millennium the time difference would only be an hour but many argue to a have a time system that does no correspond to the movement of the heavens would be irrational and occupations such as farming and astronomy would be made more difficult.

However, not everybody sees it that way wit some arguing that as te entire world’s computer networks are synchronised to UTC using NTP servers then the fudging of the extra second causes untold amounts of trouble.

Now a group within the International Telecommunications Union, called has recommended abolishing the leap second. Group member Elisa Felicitas Arias, of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Paris, France, argues that a timescale that doesn’t need regular tweaking is essential in an increasingly interconnected world. What’s more, she says, ships and aircraft now navigate via GPS rather than the old time system. GPS runs on a version of atomic time.

Next year, member states of the ITU are due to vote on the proposal. If 70 per cent support the idea, an official decision will be made at the World Radio Conference in 2011. According to a report co-authored by Felicitas Arias, most member states support the idea. The UK, however, is against reworking its laws, which include the solar timescale Greenwich Mean Time. Without the UK abolition may be difficult, says Felicitas Arias.

“In theory, adding a second is as easy as flipping a switch; in practice, it rarely works that way,” says Dennis McCarthy of the US Naval Research Laboratory, which provides the time standard used by the US military. Most likely to be affected are IT systems that need precision of less than a second. In 1998 – two leap seconds ago – cellphone communications blacked out over part of the southern US. Different regions of service had slipped into slightly different times, preventing proper relaying of signals.

All quotes attributed to the BBC

Why the Need for NTP

Saturday, December 20th, 2008

Network Time Protocol is an Internet protocol used to synchronize computer clocks to a stable and precise time reference. NTP was originally developed by Professor David L. Mills at the University of Delaware in 1985 and is an Internet standard protocol.

NTP was developed to solve the problem of multiple computers working together and having the different time. Whilst, time usually just advances, if programs are running on different computers time should advance even if you switch from one computer to another. However, if one system is ahead of the other, switching between these systems would cause time to jump forward and back.

As a consequence, networks may run their own time, but as soon as you connect to the Internet, effects become visible. Just Email messages arrive before they were sent, and are even replied to before they were mailed!

Whilst this sort of problem may seem innocuous when it comes to receiving email, however, in some environments a lack of synchronisation can have disastrous results this is why air traffic control was one of the first applications for NTP.

NTP uses a single time source and distributes it amongst all devices on a network it does this by using an algorithm that works out how much to adjust a system clock to ensure synchronisation.

NTP works on a hierarchical basis to ensure there are no network traffic and bandwidth problems. It uses a single time source, normally UTC (coordinated universal time) and receives time requests from the machines on the top of the hierarch which then pass the time on further down the chain.

Most networks that utilise NTP will use a dedicated network time server to receive their UTC time signal. These can receive the time from the GPS network or radio transmissions broadcast by national physics laboratories. These dedicated NTP time servers are ideal as they receive time direct from an atomic clock source they are also secure as they are situated externally and therefore do not require interruptions in the network firewall.

UTC Radio References from Around the World

Friday, October 17th, 2008

UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) is the global civil timescale used by millions of people, businesses and authorities across the globe. UTC is based on the time told by caesium atomic clocks. These clocks are the most reliably accurate chronometers on Earth, able to maintain accurate time for several millions of years whilst neither losing nor gaining a second.

Unfortunately caesium clocks are far too expensive and delicate pieces of machinery to make it practical for us all to have one but fortunately the time that they tell is transmitted by several countries. These nation’s national physics laboratories tend to broadcast the UTC time from these clocks by long-wave.

In the UK the 60 kHz transmission is broadcast by the National Physical Laboratory from a transmitter in Anthorn in Cumbria (it was based in Rugby until 2007). NPL constantly maintain the transmissions and assess its accuracy. Whilst the MSF signal is a British based transmission is possible to receive the signal in some parts of northern Europe and Scandinavia.

However, in mainland Europe, the strongest time and frequency signal is the German transmission broadcast from Frankfurt in Germany. This signal known as the DCF is controlled and maintained by the German National Physics Laboratory. While Switzerland also has its own time and frequency signal, the German DCF signal is by far the most widely used in Europe.

In the USA a similar system is maintained by NIST (National Institute for Standards and Time) and is broadcast from Fort Collins, Colorado. This signal is known as WWVB and is available in most parts of Northern America (including Canada).

Japan maintains its own timing broadcast (JJY) also which is popular in the south pacific and several other countries (such as France) maintain their own signals too although these tend to have only minor coverage.

All these times signals operate in a similar fashion. The strength of the signal is either reduced by between 6 and 10 dB or switched off for a specific amount of time before being restored at the start of each second. The amount of time the signal is reduced indicates a stream of binary numbers with positioning markers.
The signals operate on a 60 kHz frequency and carry a time and date code which relays the following information in binary format: Year, month, day of month,  day of week,  hour,  minute,  DUT1 (the difference between UTC and UT1 which is based on the Earths rotation). The signals also relay information about local time such as British Summer Time.

How to Configure an Authoritative Time Server in Windows Server 2008

Thursday, October 16th, 2008

Time synchronisation in modern computer networks is essential, all computers need to know the time as many applications, from sending an email to storing information are reliant on the PC knowing when the event took place.

Microsoft Windows Server from 2000 onwards has a time synchronisation utility built into the operating system called Windows Time (w32time.exe) which can be configured to operate as a network time server.

Windows Server 2008 can easily set the system clock to use UTC (Coordinated Universal Time, the World’s time standard) by accessing an Internet source (either: time.windows.com or time.nist.gov).

To achieve this, a user merely has to double click the clock on their desktop and adjust the settings in the Internet Time tab.

It must be noted however, that Microsoft and other operating system manufacturers strongly advise that external timing references should be used as Internet sources can’t be authenticated.

To configure the Windows Time service to use an external time source, click Start, Run and type regedit then click OK.

Locate the following subkey:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\Parameters\Type
In the right pane, right-click Type then click Modify, in edit Value type NTP in the Value data box then click OK.

Locate the following subkey:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\Config\AnnounceFlags.
In the right pane, right-click AnnounceFlags and click Modify. The ‘AnnounceFlags’ registry entry indicates whether the server is a trusted time reference, 5 indicates a trusted source so in the Edit DWORD Value box, under Value Data, type 5, then click OK.

Network Time Protocol (NTP) is an Internet protocol used for the transfer of accurate time, providing time information along so that a precise time can be obtained
To enable the Network Time Protocol; NTPserver, locate and click:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\TimeProviders\NtpServer\
In the right pane, right-click Enabled, then click Modify.

In the Edit DWord Value box, type 1 under Value data, then click OK.

Now go back and click on
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\Parameters\NtpServer
In the right pane, right-click NtpServer, then Modify, in the Edit DWORD Value under Value Data type In the right pane, right-click NtpServer, then Modify, in the Edit DWORD Value under Value Data type the Domain Name System (DNS), each DNS must be unique and you must append 0x1 to the end of each DNS name otherwise changes will not take effect.

Now click Ok.

Locate and click the following
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\TimeProviders\NtpClient\SpecialPollInterval
In the right pane, right-click SpecialPollInterval, then click Modify.

In the Edit DWORD Value box, under Value Data, type the number of seconds you want for each poll, ie 900 will poll every 15 minutes, then click OK.
To configure the time correction settings, locate:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\config
In the right pane, right-click MaxPosPhaseCorrection, then Modify, in the Edit DWORD Value box, under Base, click Decimal, under Value Data, type a time in seconds such as 3600 (an hour) then click OK.
Now go back and click:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\config
In the right pane, right-click MaxNegPhaseCorrection, then Modify.

In the Edit DWORD box under base, click Decimal, under value data type the time in seconds you want to poll such as 3600 (polls in one hour)
Exit Registry Editor
Now, to restart windows time service, click Start, Run (or alternatively use the command prompt facility) and type:

net stop w32time && net start w32time
And that’s it your time server should be now up and running.